The calciferol receptor (VDR) is a protein that is stimulated by calciferol. It is involved in maintaining the mineral balance in the body and contributing to growth and hair creation. It also treats adipose cells.
VDRs happen to be expressed in the parathyroid glands, intestines, epithelial cells, and many resistant cell types. They are thought to regulate the intestinal compression of calcium, and to mediate some of the associated with vitamin D about bone repair. Fortunately they are thought to play an important position in metabolic rate.
VDR can be found in a variety of tissue, including epithelial cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and skin keratinocytes. However , they are really most widely depicted in the kidneys and our bones.
The VDR is phosphorylated upon serine residues by a lot of protein kinases. These kinases include PKA and PKC. The effect of those kinases in VDR is certainly ligand reliant. Specifically, the phosphorylation of Ser51 by simply PKC reduced VDR nuclear localization. Likewise, phosphorylation of Ser182 by PKA reduced RXR heterodimerization.
Studies have shown that VDRs can be found in a subset of glial cells, especially in oligodendrocytes in white matter. Although VDR immunoreactivity virtual data room comparison has been recognized in a number of glial cell lines, no evidence has been provided that the occurrence of VDR in glia is a cause of increased likelihood of tumorigenesis.
Additionally , VDR definitely seems to be present in a subset of neurons. In fact , nuclear staining has been shown in individuals cortex and glial cell-lines.
A large 220-kDa protein can be found in human primary glioblastoma cells. In contrast, a small recombinant VDR-like protein was produced.